According to Theodor Kraus, "The root of the word Pompeii would appear to be the Oscan word for the number five, pompe, which suggests that either the community consisted of five hamlets or, perhaps, it was settled by a family group gens Pompeia. It stands on a spur formed by a lava flow to the north of the mouth of the Sarno River known in ancient times as the Sarnus. The city had suffered from other seismic events before the eruption. Three sheets of sediment have also been found on top of the lava that lies below the city which were created by large landslidesperhaps triggered by extended rainfall.
According to Theodor Kraus, "The root of the word Pompeii would appear to be the Oscan word for the number five, pompe, which suggests that either the community consisted of five hamlets or, perhaps, it was settled by a family group gens Pompeia.
It stands on a spur formed by a lava flow to the north of the mouth of the Sarno River known in ancient times as the Sarnus. Pompeii - Forum and Vesuvius. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection Today it is some distance inland, but in ancient times it would have been nearer to the coast.
It covered a total of 64 to 67 hectares acres and was home to approximately 11, to 11, people on the basis of household counts. History Early history The archaeological digs at the site extend to the street level of the 79 AD volcanic event; deeper digs in older parts of Pompeii and core samples of nearby drillings have exposed layers of jumbled sediment that suggest that the city had suffered from other seismic events before the eruption.
Three sheets of sediment have been found on top of the lava that lies below the city and, mixed in with the sediment, archaeologists have found bits of animal bone, pottery shards and plants.
Carbon dating has determined the oldest of these layers to be from the 8th—6th centuries BC around the time the city was founded.
The other two strata are separated either by well-developed soil layers or Roman pavement, and were laid in the 4th century BC and 2nd century BC. It is theorized that the layers of the jumbled sediment were created by large landslidesperhaps triggered by extended rainfall.
It had already been used as a safe port by Greek and Phoenician sailors. According to StraboPompeii was also captured by the Etruscansand in fact recent excavations have shown the presence of Etruscan inscriptions and a 6th-century BC necropolis.
Pompeii was captured for the first time by the Greek colony of Cumaeallied with Syracusebetween and BC. In the 5th century BC, the Samnites conquered it and all the other towns of Campania ; the new rulers imposed their architecture and enlarged the town.
After the Samnite Wars 4th century BCPompeii was forced to accept the status of socium of Rome, maintaining, however, linguistic and administrative autonomy.
In the 4th century BC, it was fortified. Pompeii remained faithful to Rome during the Second Punic War. The present Temple of Apollo was built in the 2nd century BC as the city's most important religious structure.
Pompeii took part in the war that the towns of Campania initiated against Rome, but in 89 BC it was besieged by Sulla. Although the battle-hardened troops of the Social League, headed by Lucius Cluentiushelped in resisting the Romans, in 80 BC Pompeii was forced to surrender after the conquest of Nola, culminating in many of Sulla's veterans' being given land and property, while many of those who went against Rome were ousted from their homes.
The town became an important passage for goods that arrived by sea and had to be sent toward Rome or Southern Italy along the nearby Appian Way.
It was fed with water by a spur from Aqua Augusta Naples built c. The castellum in Pompeii is well preserved, and includes many details of the distribution network and its controls. Vesuvius erupted The same location today. Details of everyday life are preserved. For example, on the floor of one of the houses Sirico'sa famous inscription Salve, lucru "Welcome, profit" indicates a trading company owned by two partners, Sirico and Nummianus but this could be a nickname, since nummus means "coin; money".
Other houses provide details concerning professions and categories, such as for the "laundry" workers Fullones. Wine jars have been found bearing what is apparently the world's earliest known marketing pun technically a blendVesuvinum combining Vesuvius and the Latin for wine, vinum. The numerous graffiti carved on the walls and inside rooms provides a wealth of information regarding Vulgar Latinthe form of Latin spoken colloquially rather than the literary language of the classical writers.
Portrait of the baker Terentius Neo with his wife found on the wall of a Pompeii house. During this period, Pompeii underwent a vast process of infrastructural development, most of which was built during the Augustan period. The amphitheatre has been cited by modern scholars as a model of sophisticated design, particularly in the area of crowd control.
The pools in Pompeii were used mostly for decoration. Some aspects of the culture were distinctly eroticincluding frequent use of the phallus as apotropaion or good-luck charm in various types of decoration. A large collection of erotic votive objects and frescoes were found at Pompeii.
Many were removed and kept until recently in a secret collection at the University of Naples. At the time of the eruption, the town may have had some 20, inhabitants, and was located in an area in which Romans had their holiday villas.
William Abbott explains, "At the time of the eruption, Pompeii had reached its high point in society as many Romans frequently visited Pompeii on vacations. Due to the difficult terrain, it was not distributed on a regular plan as most Roman towns were, but its streets are straight and laid out in a grid in the Roman tradition.
They are laid with polygonal stones, and have houses and shops on both sides of the street. It followed its decumanus and its cardocentered on the forum.Pompeii: | | | Pompeii | | | | ||| World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection.
The Villa dei Misteri (Villa of the Mysteries) is a well preserved fresco in the ruin of a Roman Villa which lies around meters north-west of Pompeii, in southern Italy BC.(Pompeii was amazing to visit.
Faux marble detail, Villa of the Mysteries, before 79 C.E., fresco, just outside the walls of Pompeii on the Road to Herculaneum Detail of faux marble, Villa of the Mysteries, before 79 C.E., fresco, just outside the walls of Pompeii on the Road to Herculaneum.
Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD. Its ruins are located in the comune of Ercolano, Campania, Italy.. As a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is famous as one of the few ancient cities that can now be seen in much of its original splendour, as well as for having been lost, along with.
Roman Artifacts Ancient Artifacts Ancient Pompeii Pompeii And Herculaneum Roman History Villa Romaine Reception Halls Ancient Romans Roman Empire Forward Fresco of a Seated Woman playing a Kithara from the reception hall of the villa of P Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale Italy Late Roman Republican Period BCE [Mary Harrsch - Photographed at the.
The excavated city offers a snapshot of Roman life in the 1st century, frozen at the moment it was buried on 24 August AD  The forum, the baths, many houses, and some out-of-town villas like the Villa of the Mysteries remain well preserved..
Details of everyday life are preserved.