Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch scientist, performed many experiments testing and observing bacteria. Biofilms are communities of bacteria, or micro-organismsattached to surfaces in the body. Oral biofilms are more commonly referred to as plaque.
Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Get Access Nanobacteria Case Essay Sample Nanobacteria newly discovered cell walled microorganisms significantly contributed to turmoil around conventional medicine and its further development.
Moreover, if nanobacteria are considered to be living organisms, some scientists speculate that they should be regarded not as bacteria but a newly discovered form of life. From the scientific perspective, nanobacteria have a cell diameter of 0.
By examining nanobacterial 16S rRNA, Kajander, Ciftcioglu and coworkers have put nanobacteria in the alpha-2 subgroup of Proteobacteria, a subgroup that includes Brucella and Bartonella species. Paradoxically, the scientists for a long time suspected high concentrations of calcium in the kidney as the cause of kidney stone formation.
Practically, deposits of insoluble calcium salts can occur at several sites in the body but how they form is unclear. InKajander and Ciftcioglu propose that nanobacteria may act as crystallizations centers for the initiation of kidney stones and other pathological calcifications. In fact, when the scientists examined 30 randomly collected kidney stones, they discovered living nanobacteria present in all of them.
Physicians have long suspected high concentrations of Are bacteria alive essay in the kidney as the cause, but researchers at the University of Kuopio in Finland now have evidence that infectious bacteria use calcium and phosphate to build tiny protective shells.
These small spheres may act as seeds for larger calcium deposits which become kidney stones. In fact, when the investigators examined 30 randomly collected kidney stones, they found living nanobacteria present in all of them.
One year earlier scientists discovered nanobacteria in white films sticking to the surfaces of tissue culture vessels containing mammalian cells and media supplemented with bovine serum Kajander et al, Nanobacteria use calcium and phosphate to build tiny protective shells, which provide protective shelter enabling them to survive conditions of physical stress.
When they looked at 30 human kidney stones, all stained positively with nanobacteria-specific monoclonal antibodies. Bacteria with a morphological appearance consistent with nanobacteria were present in strongly stained stones Kajander et al, In some cases, sterile filtered extracts of the stones also developed pure nanobacteria cultures, which when introduced intravenously into rabbits, localized predominantly in the kidneys.
Simultaneously, kidney stones are generally not considered to have an infectious nature.
However if assessed practically, the carbonate apatite released by imperceptible nanobacteria could supply a nidus for calcium oxalate crystal formation. Discovery of nanobacteria imposes new challenges for contemporary medicine.
Inresearchers reported finding nanobacteria in everything from heart disease to cancer and kidney stones Mulhall, Some specialists argue that a test for nanobacteria can be considered to be an accurate predictor of heart disease risk. However, problems emerge not only on the practical level with diagnosis and treatments.
Some critics argue against the very existence of nanobacteria and their cultures, which potentially decreases the chances for further research funding Mulhall, From the practical perspective, because nanobacteria are sheltered in mineral concentrations, they are difficult to eliminate with short-term antibiotic treatment.
Medical science knows that the tetracyclines have an ability to accumulate on apatite and are bacteriostatic to nanobacteria.
Trough this process nanobacteria should become localized for the antibiotic. Some medical evidence reveals a benefit for long-term tetracycline therapy in some patients with various diseases associated with extraskeletal calcification, including scleroderma.
The dilemma of effective treatment from nanobacteria is intensified with inability of interested parties, including governmental agencies to fund necessary research in the filed of nanobacteria-contaminated vaccines. Simultaneously, the issue is transforming in a pressing debate in the medical field and beyond with the appearance of the study published in Circulation Research claiming that calcium phosphate crystals cause inflammation in the arteries, which is a primary cause of the heart attack.I concur with the assessment that nanobacteria are not living, yet I wonder what justifies the assertion that they can not produce diseases.
Lead, . If you have any suspicions, please check on your loved ones. After my father died at 84, I googled “obsessed with health.” Interestingly, orthorexia came up several times in the search results, so here I .
Landon would be five today if he were still alive. It’s a very hard birthday–five. It’s a milestone birthday. Most kiddos would be starting kindergarten at this age. Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England. He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award.
Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers. Since , CELLS alive!
has provided students with a learning resource for cell biology, microbiology, immunology, and microscopy through the use of mobile-friendly interactive animations, video, puzzles, quizzes and study aids.
every single palliative care doctor I have ever met is relentlessly cheerful and upbeat and this is a total mystery to me. All the stuff in this post, the extended suffering, the dying by inches.