Archaic globalization Archaic globalization conventionally refers to a phase in the history of globalization including globalizing events and developments from the time of the earliest civilizations until roughly the s. This term is used to describe the relationships between communities and states and how they were created by the geographical spread of ideas and social norms at both local and regional levels. The first is the idea of Eastern Origins, which shows how Western states have adapted and implemented learned principles from the East. The second is distance.
Izhar Cohen Advertisement From Ukraine, Syria and Gaza to the centenary of the First World War innews junkies and students of history cannot help but wonder if war is a perpetual feature of civilization.
Can science answer the question? In their book Triangulating Peace, political scientists Bruce Russett and John Oneal employed a multiple logistic regression model on data from the Correlates of War Project that recorded 2, militarized interstate disputes between and They assigned each country a democracy score between 1 and 10, based on the Polity Project, which measures how competitive its political process is, as well as the fairness of its elections, checks and balances of power, transparency, and so on.
The researchers found that when two countries scored high on the Polity scale, disputes between them decreased by 50 percent, but when one country was either a low-scoring democracy or an autocracy, it doubled the chance of a quarrel between them.
Kant also suggested that international trade economic interdependency and membership in international communities transparency and accountability reduce the likelihood of conflict. So in their model Russett and Oneal included data on the amount of trade between nations and found that countries that depended more on trade in a given year were less likely to have a militarized dispute in the subsequent year.
They also counted the number of intergovernmental organizations IGOs that every pair of nations jointly belonged to and ran a regression analysis with democracy and trade scores.
How has the democratic peace theory held up since ? With all the conflict around the world, it seems like peace is on the rocks.
But anecdotes are not data. He wonders, reasonably, if there might be some other underlying factor that explains both democracy and peace but does not suggest what that might be. I propose human nature itself and our propensity to prefer the elements of democracy.
Peace is a pleasant by-product. Whatever the deeper cause may be, the long-term trends are encouraging. According to Freedom House, there were no electoral democracies with universal suffrage in69 inand in —63 percent of the countries in the world.
The other 37 percent—particularly the theocratic autocracies desirous of thermonuclear weapons and bent on bringing about Armageddon—means we must remain vigilant.
This is not the type of perpetual peace toward which most sentient beings strive. His next book is The Moral Arc. Follow him on Twitter michaelshermer Advertisement.The Uninhabitable Earth Famine, economic collapse, a sun that cooks us: What climate change could wreak — sooner than you think. The North Korean nuclear threat is more dangerous than the Cuban Missile Crisis, and it is time for the U.S.
government to pursue diplomatic options.
Executive summary. In August , a Ferguson, Missouri, policeman shot and killed an unarmed black teenager. Michael Brown’s death and the resulting protests and racial tension brought considerable attention to that town.
Moreover, economic openness also reduces the risk of civil violence (de Soysa ) and of genocides or other political mass murders (Harff ), and the intervening variable of prosperity-in-between trade and war avoidance-also happens to reduce the risk of domestic instability and violence (Henderson and Singer ; World Bank ).
The last decade has been a difficult one for the European Union. In the wake of the debt crisis, much debate has arisen around its nature, its powers, its governance and its policies. Money/Economic Documentaries When All Else Fails, Just Follow The Money Trails "If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks will deprive the people of all property until their children wake-up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered.