In engineering, if you do not know what you are doing, you should not be doing it. Of course, you seldom, if ever, see either pure state.
How to write good topic sentences Note that the essay is fairly short, for your convenience, but the principles applied here are applied in much the same way in longer essays, so this is a useful all-around example. It may be best to quickly read through this article before reviewing the annotations, since they often explain how early parts of the paper anticipate later parts.
An Appeal to the Senses: The Development of the Braille System in Nineteenth-Century France Author Name Institutional Affiliation The invention of the Braille system marked a major turning point in nineteenth-century France in the education and integration into society of those with vision loss.
Although the Braille system was initially met with resistance from sighted people, especially those who taught at the school that Louis Braille attended, his system of reading revolutionized society, and it is still in use today. Furthermore, the Braille system depended on the acceptance of tactile reading among sighted people to progress into a transformative system that granted the blind autonomous access to the cultural benefits of reading and allowed them to participate in society in new ways.
Before the Braille reading system could foster significant cultural improvement for the blind in nineteenth-century society, it needed cultural support that had so far been absent, leaving the blind at a disadvantage. Without a developed and efficient reading system that did not rely on sight, people with vision loss lacked access to cultural engagementsince one of the primary methods for most people to engage with culture was through reading.
In fact, in the nineteenth century, blind people were often considered to have the worst disability, such that they were essentially useless to society Weygand, It was commonly believed that people with vision loss were incapable of pursuing a profession or culturing themselves Weygand, Occasionally, a prosperous family or benefactor would support a person with vision loss Mellor,but even then Interactive essay person would struggle to fully integrate into society.
Nineteenth-century French society was unsure of how to deal with people with long-term disabilities, but eventually targeted education strategies were adopted. While people with temporary difficulties were able to access public welfare, the response for people with long-term disabilities, such as hearing or vision loss, was to group them in institutions Tombs, Originally, a joint institute for the blind and deaf was created, and although this partnership was primarily motivated by financial considerations rather than by the well-being of the residents, the hope was to help them to develop skills valuable to society Weygand, This societal acknowledgement of the uniqueness of disabilities fostered an environment in which education of the blind was deemed culturally beneficial.
Several different systems of tactile reading can be seen as forerunners to the method Louis Braille developed, but these systems were all developed based on the sighted system.
Reading this way proved to be a rather arduous task, as the letters were difficult to distinguish by touch. The embossed letter method was based on the reading system of sighted people, with minimal adaptation for those with vision loss.
As a result, this method was not successfully implemented within the blind community at large. His intention was to develop a system that would allow the military to communicate at night without the need for light Herron, The code developed by Barbier was phonetic Jimenez et al.
In other words, the code was designed for sighted people and was based on the sounds of words, not on an actual alphabet. Nevertheless, Barbier discovered that variants of raised dots within a square were the easiest method of reading by touch Jimenez et al.
This reading system was not suitable for daily use by blind people, however, as the symbols were too large for the fingertip, greatly reducing the speed at which a message could be read Herron, As a result, his system was also inappropriate for widespread adoption within the blind community.
Compared to the 26 letters of the sighted alphabet, this was an absurdly high number. To reduce the possible combinations, Louis Braille kept the raised dot system, but developed a system that would reflect the sighted alphabet.
Even though the Braille system gained immediate popularity with the blind students at the Institute in Paris, it had to gain acceptance among the sighted leaders before its adoption throughout France.
This support was necessary because sighted teachers and leaders would ultimately be responsible for the propagation of Braille resources. This resistance was symptomatic of the prevalent attitude at the time that the blind population had to adapt to the ways of the sighted, rather than develop their own methods.
Although blind people remained disenfranchised throughout the nineteenth century, their increased access to culture through the Braille system in turn granted them growing opportunities for social participation on par with the sighted.
With this new means of accessing culture through written works, blind people were later able to integrate more smoothly into society because their ability to access information more closely paralleled the abilities of sighted people.
In other words, the closing of the gap between the abilities of blind and the sighted helped limit cultural understandings of the blind as essentially different and useless. The Braille system meant that the blind community now had the ability to participate in certain cultural experiences previously unavailable to them.
Written works, such as books and poetry, had before represented an inaccessible cultural avenue to the blind population. The distribution of books in Braille, however, enabled people with vision loss to access written culture autonomously, without the aid of reader. Furthermore, the Braille system led to the development of a music notation system for the blind, although Louis Braille did not develop this system himself Jimenez, et al.
At about this time, blind musicians were no longer able to compete with sighted musicians, since music transitioned from performance by memory to performance by written repertoire Kersten, As a result, a tactile musical notation was necessary for equality in musical ability between the blind and sighted Kersten, Braille radically enhanced the abilities of the blind and societal understanding of what the blind could do.
Similarly, the success of the Braille system was not restricted to the practical tactile reading made available to the blind; its significance stems from providing blind people broader access to culture and concomitant gains in social status.
The story of Louis Braille. Archives of Ophthalmology, Engineering and Technology, 4 8. Biography of Louis Braille and invention of the Braille alphabet.Oct 21, · Brian Wansink is a professor and David R. Just is an associate professor at the Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management at Cornell.
Joe McKendry is a painter and illustrator. A visual essay on everything we forgot how to do — and how to ask: from fixing toilets to how to kiss. Essay editing is a good way to improve your text and make it shine.
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