Summary[ edit ] The dialogue is told from the perspective of one of Socrates' students, Phaedo of Eliswho was present at Socrates' death bed. Phaedo relates the dialogue from that day to Echecratesa Pythagorean philosopher. Socrates offers four arguments for the soul's immortality: The Cyclical Argument, or Opposites Argument explains that Forms are eternal and unchanging, and as the soul always brings life, then it must not die, and is necessarily "imperishable".
Next Work Kierkegaard begins here his pseudonymous authorship proper, providing several essays and narratives that may seem prolix, haphazard and rambling. The length of this work shocked the reviewers of the day, leaving many unsure how to approach it.
Indeed, Kierkegaard's style throughout his philosophical works is highly idiosyncratic. One purpose of Kierkegaard's writing among many was to draw his reader out of his preconceptions and away from the influence of the then very pervasive Hegelian system.
This involved some lengthy works and an intricate corpus. Presenting each aspect of the esthetic and ethical stages would help to label them, and set the stage to introduce the religious sphere, a thing that Kierkegaard actually made pains to do, since he published religious discourses even while he published the philosophical works.
This work, in turn, formed part of a larger plan. Years later he would reflect on his authorship and its purpose. My contemporaries cannot grasp the design of my writing.
Kierkegaard's pseudonymity was not an afterthought late in his writing career. Kierkegaard took unusual pains to ensure that the public would not know who wrote it. The final draft of the work was done by several hands, so that even employees at the printer's would be deceived.
What I have understood as the task of the authorship has been done. They are happy not to know his identity, for then they have only the book to deal with, without being bothered or distracted by his personality p.
First, it is intended as an alternative to Hegelian philosophy, which was in currency at the time, which posited the famous triad: Kierkegaard asserted that this jeopardized belief in propositional truth, specifically the law of contradiction.
But Kierkegaard posited three stages or spheres of existence: The religious sphere is addressed later in Stages on Life's Waythough hinted at the end of part two, called "Ultimatum: The pseudonym Victor Eremita is the editor of the entire work. His name means "victorious hermit", perhaps because Kierkegaard, though a very public man, isolated himself in his room like a hermit into the late hours, writing voluminously for several years at amazing speed.
He was an habitual stroller during the day, and would also visit the theatre and mull about before and after the performance, all so that people might think he was an idler.
On the other hand, since he had used a dedication "To that solitary individual", and had considered himself one, he certainly must have felt isolated in his own philosophical position. The "author" of the first volume, the "either" half, is called simply A. Of the works on the esthetic sphere is the diary of a seducer, essays on drama and literature, and an essay on Don Giovanni.
Eremita speculates that A merely edited, rather than wrote the diary, which is attributed to Johannes the Seducer. He says that it is difficult to determine not only the order of A's works, but which ones are by him or merely edited by him.
Some of the works edited by A may also be by The Young Man, who is also the subject of Kierkegaard's Repetitionwho signifies the esthetic stage, since he cannot commit to the ethical. Most of the works by A point to a more reflective and somber esthete as opposed to the author of the "Seducer's Diary".
The latter "author" is more overtly in the pleasures of the moment, of which one is pleasure at recollecting the period of seduction. Often A is thought to adhere to Epicureanism, which is not a philosophy of wanton pleasure, as is often thought, but of moderated pleasure and retreat into the peace and quiet of the garden.
That there is no conclusion and no final decision is an indirect expression for truth as inwardness and in this way perhaps a polemic against truth as knowledge p.In this essay I will discuss the character of Socrates as he is presented in the Apology, I will look at Socrates as a religious fanatic and an apostle of reason.
I will provide an argument from my own personal stance that the character of Socrates in the Apology is a variation of .
My opinion of Either/Or: There was a young man as favorably endowed as an vetconnexx.com lost his way in the world. In his need he looked about for a Socrates but found none among his contemporaries.
Then he requested the gods to change him into one. Phædo or Phaedo (/ ˈ f iː d oʊ /; Greek: Φαίδων, Phaidōn, Greek pronunciation: [pʰaídɔːn]), also known to ancient readers as On The Soul, is one of the best-known dialogues of Plato's middle period, along with the Republic and the Symposium.
The philosophical subject of the dialogue is the immortality of the soul. It is set in the last hours prior to the death of Socrates, and. Aristotle: Politics. In his Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle ( B.C.E.) describes the happy life intended for man by nature as one lived in accordance with virtue, and, in his Politics, he describes the role that politics and the political community must play in bringing about the virtuous life in the citizenry.
The Politics also provides analysis of the kinds of political community that. Socrates, Philosophy and the Good Life Socrates' belief was that he was called on by the Gods to live his life examining others and himself. He believed the necessity of doing what one thinks is right even in the face of universal opposition, and the need to pursue knowledge even when opposed.
The Presocratics were 6 th and 5 th century BCE Greek thinkers who introduced a new way of inquiring into the world and the place of human beings in it. They were recognized in antiquity as the first philosophers and scientists of the Western tradition.
This article is a general introduction to the most important Presocratic philosophers and the main themes of Presocratic thought.