History of Jewish Immigration to America: Background History of Jews in Europe By the 10th century in the Middles Ages most of Europe was under the rule of Christian monarchs who made Christianity the religion of their lands. Jews were tolerated to some extent due to their shared devotion to the same God that the Christians worshiped. During this time the Church forbade Christians from charging interest to fellow Christians and the only source of loans were from non-Christians such as Jews.
History of the Jews in preth-century Poland The culture and intellectual output of the Jewish community in Poland had a profound impact on Judaism as a whole.
Some Jewish historians have recounted that the word Poland is pronounced as Polania or Polin in Hebrewand as transliterated into Hebrew.
These names for Poland were interpreted as "good omens" because Polania can be broken down into three Hebrew words: The "message" was that Poland was meant to be a good place for the Jews. During the time from the rule of Sigismund I the Old until the HolocaustPoland would be at the center of Jewish religious life.
Yeshivot were established, under the direction of the rabbis, in the more prominent communities. Such schools were officially known as gymnasiumsand their rabbi principals as rectors. Jewish printing establishments came into existence in the first quarter of the 16th century.
The growth of Talmudic scholarship in Poland was coincident with the greater prosperity of the Polish Jews; and because of their communal autonomy educational development was wholly one-sided and along Talmudic lines.
Exceptions are recorded, however, where Jewish youth sought secular instruction in the European universities. The learned rabbis became not merely expounders of the Law, but also spiritual advisers, teachers, judges, and legislators; and their authority compelled the communal leaders to make themselves familiar with the abstruse questions of Jewish law.
Polish Jewry found its views of life shaped by the spirit of Talmudic and rabbinical literature, whose influence was felt in the home, in school, and in the synagogue. In the first half of the 16th century the seeds of Talmudic learning had been transplanted to Poland from Bohemiaparticularly from the school of Jacob Pollakthe creator of Pilpul "sharp reasoning".
He lived and died in Lublinwhere he was the head of the yeshivah which produced the rabbinical celebrities of the following century.
Shachna's son Israel became rabbi of Lublin on the death of his father, and Shachna's pupil Moses Isserles known as the ReMA — achieved an international reputation among the Jews as the author of the Mappahwhich adapted the Shulkhan Arukh to meet the needs of the Ashkenazi community. His contemporary and correspondent Solomon Luria — of Lublin also enjoyed widespread popularity among his co-religionists; and the authority of both was recognized by the Jews throughout Europe.
Heated religious disputations were common, and Jewish scholars participated in them. At the same time, the Kabbalah had become entrenched under the protection of Rabbinism ; and such scholars as Mordecai Jaffe and Yoel Sirkis devoted themselves to its study.
This period of great Rabbinical scholarship was interrupted by the Chmielnicki Uprising and The Deluge. The rise of Hasidism[ edit ] Main article: Hasidic Judaism Israel ben Eliezer's autograph The decade from the Cossacks' uprising until after the Swedish war — left a deep and lasting impression not only on the social life of the Polish-Lithuanian Jews, but on their spiritual life as well.
The intellectual output of the Jews of Poland was reduced. The Talmudic learning which up to that period had been the common possession of the majority of the people became accessible to a limited number of students only.
What religious study there was became overly formalized, some rabbis busied themselves with quibbles concerning religious laws; others wrote commentaries on different parts of the Talmud in which hair-splitting arguments were raised and discussed; and at times these arguments dealt with matters which were of no practical importance.
At the same time, many miracle workers made their appearance among the Jews of Poland, culminating in a series of false "Messianic" movements, most famously Sabbateanism and Frankism. Into this time of mysticism and overly formal rabbinism came the teachings of Israel ben Eliezerknown as the Baal Shem Tov, or BeShT, —which had a profound effect on the Jews of Central Europe and Poland in particular.
His disciples taught and encouraged a new fervent brand of Judaism based on Kabbalah known as Hasidism. The rise of Hasidic Judaism within Poland's borders and beyond had a great influence on the rise of Haredi Judaism all over the world, with a continuous influence through its many Hasidic dynasties including those of Chabad-LubavitchAleksanderBobovGerand Nadvorna.
List of Polish Rabbis 19th century[ edit ] The Jews in Central Europe In the Papal Stateswhich existed untilJews were required to live only in specified neighborhoods called ghettos.
Until the s, they were required to regularly attend sermons urging their conversion to Christianity. Only Jews were taxed to support state boarding schools for Jewish converts to Christianity.
It was illegal to convert from Christianity to Judaism. Sometimes Jews were baptized involuntarily, and, even when such baptisms were illegal, forced to practice the Christian religion. In many such cases the state separated them from their families.
See Edgardo Mortara for an account of one of the most widely publicized instances of acrimony between Catholics and Jews in the Papal States in the second half of the 19th century.
The movement of Zionism originates in the late 19th century. Inthe first issue of Selbstemanzipation Self Emancipation appeared, printed by Birnbaum himself.
The Dreyfus Affairwhich erupted in France inprofoundly shocked emancipated Jews.The causes for jewish migration from east to west The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to securing and protecting information the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred.
In the twelfth century it had moved to the neighborhood of Troyes because of the migration of the Jews to Rome, to Spain, to Gaul, to England, and to Germany. By the middle of the sixteenth century, owing to the expulsion and migrations from western Europe, the center of Jewish population had moved over to Poland.
The history of the Jews in the United States has been part of the American national fabric since colonial times. whether in Christian Europe or in the Muslim parts of the Middle East . five of seven clothing merchants in Clarksburg, West Virginia, were Jewish, and into the s the Jews here were primarily merchants.
The thesis that anti-Jewish persecutions and expulsions are the actual cause of Jewish migrations after An east to west migration that primarily had economic causes already began during the seventeenth century. Compared to the Eastern European Jewish mass migration, the Jewish migration from Central Europe in the middle of the.
History of Jewish Immigration to America: Background History of Jews in Europe By the 10th century in the Middles Ages most of Europe was under the rule of Christian monarchs who made Christianity the religion of their lands.
Jewish 'communities' start to appear in late Carolingian sources (9th century CE), which seem to suggest immigration from the mediterranean littoral up the Rhone river into central France and by the late 10th and early 11th centuries clearly identifiable communities in the east and west of France.