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All published and unpublished material, whether in manuscript, printed or electronic form, is covered under this definition. Plagiarism may be intentional or reckless, or unintentional. Under the regulations for examinations, intentional or reckless plagiarism is a disciplinary offence.
You must also attribute text, data, or other resources downloaded from websites. The best way of avoiding plagiarism is to learn and employ the principles of good academic practice from the beginning of your university career.
Avoiding plagiarism is not simply a matter of making sure your references are all correct, or changing enough words so the examiner will not notice your paraphrase; it is about deploying your academic skills to make your work as good as it can be. Forms of plagiarism Verbatim word for word quotation without clear acknowledgement Quotations must always be identified as such by the use of either quotation marks or indentation, and with full referencing of the sources cited.
Cutting and pasting from the Internet without clear acknowledgement Information derived from the Internet must be adequately referenced and included in the bibliography. It is important to evaluate carefully all material found on the Internet, as it is less likely to have been through the same process of scholarly peer review as published sources.
Paraphrasing Paraphrasing the work of others by altering a few words and changing their order, or by closely following the structure of their argument, is plagiarism if you do not give due acknowledgement to the author whose work you are using.
A passing reference to the original author in your own text may not be enough; you must ensure that you do not create the misleading impression that the paraphrased wording or the sequence of ideas are entirely your own. This will ensure you have a genuine grasp of the argument and will avoid the difficulty of paraphrasing without plagiarising.
You must also properly attribute all material you derive from lectures. Collusion This can involve unauthorised collaboration between students, failure to attribute assistance received, or failure to follow precisely regulations on group work projects. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are entirely clear about the extent of collaboration permitted, and which parts of the work must be your own.
Inaccurate citation It is important to cite correctly, according to the conventions of your discipline. As well as listing your sources i. Additionally, you should not include anything in your references or bibliography that you have not actually consulted.
If you cannot gain access to a primary source you must make it clear in your citation that your knowledge of the work has been derived from a secondary text for example, Bradshaw, D. Title of Book, discussed in Wilson, E.
Failure to acknowledge assistance You must clearly acknowledge all assistance which has contributed to the production of your work, such as advice from fellow students, laboratory technicians, and other external sources. This need not apply to the assistance provided by your tutor or supervisor, or to ordinary proofreading, but it is necessary to acknowledge other guidance which leads to substantive changes of content or approach.
Use of material written by professional agencies or other persons You should neither make use of professional agencies in the production of your work nor submit material which has been written for you even with the consent of the person who has written it. It is vital to your intellectual training and development that you should undertake the research process unaided.
Under Statute XI on University Discipline, all members of the University are prohibited from providing material that could be submitted in an examination by students at this University or elsewhere. Auto-plagiarism You must not submit work for assessment that you have already submitted partially or in fulleither for your current course or for another qualification of this, or any other, university, unless this is specifically provided for in the special regulations for your course.
Where earlier work by you is citable, ie.
Identical pieces of work submitted concurrently will also be considered to be auto-plagiarism. Why does plagiarism matter?Thomas Lancaster, an associate dean at Staffordshire University and one of the UK’s leading experts on essay cheating, said that while universities had anti-plagiarism software to detect copying.
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