They landed in Kent and defeated two armies led by the kings of the Catuvellauni tribe, Caratacus and Togodumnusin battles at the Medway and the Thames. Togodumnus was killed, and Caratacus fled to Wales. The Roman force, led by Aulus Plautius, waited for Claudius to come and lead the final march on the Catuvellauni capital at Camulodunum modern Colchesterbefore he returned to Rome for his triumph.
Religion in Elizabethan England Shakespeare was well acquainted with the religious tensions of his age between the Catholics and the Protestants, and inevitably drew connections between the violent civil Wars of the Roses and the current threat of civil war over religion that many Elizabethans feared.
Although it is highly contested, many historians believe that Shakespeare himself was a covert Catholic and would have intimately understood the secrecy, confusion, suspicion and potential punishment that accompanied following the old religion under Elizabeth.
The young Queen Elizabeth I. When Elizabeth was made Queen of England after the death of Mary Tudor on November 17,her people had good reason to be concerned. Within more or less the past decade the nation had gone from Protestant under Edward VI to Catholic under Mary and now back to Protestant. If famine, plague, inflation, and war with France and Scotland were not bad enough, now there was the threat of religious upheaval and the violent persecution that accompanied it.
Neither Elizabeth nor her government was very enthusiastic at first about religious reform, knowing the problems that would ensure.
At first, she simply banned preaching altogether to try and keep the peace, desperately afraid of Catholic revolt. Most Catholics were equally optimistic, assuming that a Catholic husband was all Elizabeth needed. It was the Protestant population, in fact, who wanted revenge for their fellow Englishmen who were exiled, imprisoned and burnt at the stake under Queen Mary.
InParliament passed the Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity, which made Elizabeth the head of the Church with the help of an Ecclesiastical High Commission, or religious police, and returned the nation to Protestantism as it had been under Edward VI. The Book of Common Prayer from was adopted, which in particular allowed for a looser interpretation of the Eucharist.
When it came to the destruction of images and altars, windows were replaced, idols destroyed and tables replaced altars. Elizabeth even sent out inspectors to make sure that it was done, unlike Queen Mary when she instated the Catholic ceremonies.
Elizabethans were very confused about religion. They did not know whether their God was a wrathful or a benevolent one, or what the fundamental differences were between the old and the new faiths. However, devout Protestants wanted the Catholics purged and Elizabeth herself continued her reforms by creating a new calendar, translating the Book of Common Prayer in Latin for the universities and hanging the Ten Commandments where altars once were.
The Tyburn tree in London, where Catholic martyrs were killed.
The articles were highly contested on the subject of, what else, uniforms for clergymen, and Elizabeth herself was furious that they had been drafted behind her back.
Edmund Campion and the Tyburn tree. But after several riots over the articles, debates that widened the gap between Protestantism and Catholicism, more plots related to Mary in Scotland, and a new Act of Treason, Catholics were exiled and imprisoned en masse. At first, Elizabeth did not want to outright execute Catholics, attempting to distinguish her own rule from that of Mary Tudor.
But the rebellion led by Edmund Campion and Robert Persons proved to be the limit, and these men became the first Catholic martyrs under Elizabeth. After that, Catholics were persecuted no differently than their Protestant counter parts had been, such as the Northern rebellion led by the Earl of Norfolk in that sought to put Mary on the throne.
Elizabeth destroyed the rebel army and plundered the region in response, hanging men in the first month of Catholics were no longer just enemies of the church to be reprimanded, but intolerable enemies of the nation.
InElizabeth faced yet another Catholic threat from Philip V of Spain, and it was defeating his Armada that finally ensured her English Protestant power.The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Cranmer's shift to Protestantism was borne partly by his membership of the team negotiating for the annulment, If Mary was to secure England for Roman Catholicism, she.
Elizabethan Catholics. Cardinal William Allen was given the task of restoring England to Catholicism if the Spanish invasion succeeded and he published an Admonition to the English encouraging them to revolt against the "deposed" "bastard" Elizabeth.
However, the Elizabethan government cautiously disarmed Catholic gentlemen and imprisoned. The Jacobean era refers to the period in English and Scottish history that coincides with the reign of James VI of Scotland (–), who also inherited the crown of England in as James I.
The Jacobean era succeeds the Elizabethan era and precedes the Caroline era, Followed by: Caroline era.
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Founded in , Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections, both formal and informal, to Princeton University. England became inhabited more than , years ago, as the discovery of stone tools and footprints at Happisburgh in Norfolk has revealed.
The earliest evidence for early modern humans in North West Europe, a jawbone discovered in Devon at Kents Cavern in , was re-dated in to between 41, and 44, years old. Continuous human habitation in England dates to around 13, years .