The varying purposes for which they are used make common measures very difficult, if not impossible.
The internal processes most studied in this perspective are cognitive memory, perception, and decision making and physiological chemical and neural activity. Each approach examines a different aspect of how interactions are affected by these internal processes.
The underlying basis of the cognitive and intrapersonal approach centers on how individuals store information in the brain in the form of schemas. Schemas represent the way in which people identify objects in their environment by labeling them, which then allows the objects to be categorized.
The use of schemas allows individuals to process billions of bits of information from the environment, which then enables them Various social science theories easily engage in interactions.
The cognitive and physiological approaches in this perspective explore different aspects of the impact of schemas on interactions.
The study of memory examines how people categorize events, situations, and others they have encountered previously, helping researchers understand the type of schema constructed and used in particular groups, cultures, and settings. Studying memory allows researchers to directly explore the connection between interactions and how they are labeled.
Take as an example a person entering a room and observing two people interacting with each other. If she labels and categorizes the interaction as a romantic interlude between lovers, she is less likely to interrupt than if the interaction is labeled and categorized as a conversation between co workers.
Further, if the person entering the room identifies and labels one of the actors as a close friend, her interactions with the two people will be different than if they were simply co workers. Theoretical ideas associated with understanding schemas and memory include stereotypes the actual categories used in labeling people and situations and self fulfilling prophecy where we act in such a manner as to confirm our initial impressions of people.
The study of perception examines the meanings individuals associate with the categories in which events, situations, and people are placed. Finally, decision making research explores how schemas, memories, and perceptions contribute to the ways in which people make decisions ranging from what to wear in the morning to the level of risk they are willing to take in any situation.
The decisions made directly impact whether or not an individual is willing to interact with one person as opposed to another, as Various social science theories as the quality of the interactions that do occur. The physiological approach in the cognitive and intrapersonal perspective is not normally included in discussions about social psychology, as at first glance its theoretical focus does not directly relate to social interactions.
However, recent developments in this approach link it much more closely with the cognitive approach, thereby warranting its inclusion in this discussion. The goal of such research is to more accurately explain how particular chemical and biological processes directly impact on cognitive function ing.
Technology is now allowing physiologically based researchers in psychology, neuroscience, and sociology to measure and examine the relationship between these chemical and biological processes and associated actions and interactions in humans.
Early research in this area focused on non human species due to the ethical issues associated with human experimentation. The implication is that such technologies will allow social psychologists to more accurately and directly measure social interaction.
Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic interactionism originated from the work of George Herbert Mead and his students at the University of Chicago as well as the work of pragmatic philosophers. While Mead was formally associated with the psychology and philosophy departments at the University of Chicago, his classes on social psychology and social philosophy attracted a large number of students from the fledgling sociology department.
These ideas center on his discussions of the mind what makes humans uniquely social creaturesself how we become uniquely social creaturesand society how our interactions are affected by social institutions.
Mead wrote extensively about issues concerning more macro level social phenomena such as the role of government in funding education and the role of education for socialization, but he is mainly recognized for his contributions to symbolic interactionism.
Generally, the symbolic interactionist perspective in social psychology focuses on studying the meanings that underlie social interactions in terms of how they are created, how they are maintained, and how we learn to understand such meanings.
Additionally, theorists writing within this perspective argue that individual interactions lead to the creation of formal social organizations and social institutions. Therefore, to understand society, it is necessary to understand the interactions that shape it and maintain it.
There are three main theoretical approaches in the symbolic interactionist perspective, symbolic interactionism, phenomenological, and life course, each of which examines different aspects of these meanings and the self on which they are derived.
The underlying theme of this approach is that individuals create and manage meanings through the roles and identities they hold. It is important to note that each individual holds any number of roles and identities, depending on the people with whom they interact as well as the environment in which they find themselves.
Contemporary developments of these ideas are found in the work of Erving Goffman, Peter Burke, Sheldon Stryker, and their associates and students.
Burke and associates proposed a more formal theore tical explanation of how different parts of the self are associated with specific identities people hold. The phenomenological approach originated from European sociology and philosophy, emphasizing the meanings themselves and how such meanings reflect unstated normative expectations for interactions.
The underlying theme of this approach is that language, verbal and non verbal, represents the informal and formal rules and norms that guide social interactions and structure society.
The early work in phenomenology, as represented by the ideas of Alfred Schutz and Harold Garfinkel, differen tiated between different aspects of how people create social reality as well as operate within already existing social reality.
Schutz examined how language and communication represented an intersubjective process of reality creation and maintainance, while Garfinkel explored how people managed reality through the development of ethnomethodology.
Contemporary developments of phenomenology are found in the work of theorists such as Howard Becker, Peter Berger, and Douglas Maynard.
Equally important, Berger and Luckmann also clearly demonstrated how everyday interactions and language create seemingly formidable social institutions and organizations.
Finally, Maynard further developed ethnomethodology by focusing on conversation analysis as a way of understanding how social talk creates and represents reality. The life course approach in symbolic interactionism focuses on how humans learn the meanings associated with interactions through out their lifetime and the stages that reflect such learning processes.
Mead explained how humans become uniquely social creatures in his lectures about the self, where he describes a three stage process preparatory, play, and game for humans to learn the norms, rules, and values of the group into which they are born.
He argued that by the end of this process, people will have a fully developed self. Contemporary theorists such as Glenn Elder, Roberta Simmons, and Dale Dannefer, and their students and colleagues, build on these ideas in similar ways.Man is a social animal and hence studying the areas which he is associated with, is important.
There exists a separate branch of science that deals with subjects related to inter-society and intra-society associations of human civilizations and its surrounding elements. A theory is a based upon a hypothesis and backed by evidence.
Social Science Theories and the Study of Public Opinion Hans L Zetterberg* them in the established theories of social science. Public opinions of both kinds are opinions in various social settings: (1) opinions in encounters showing their motivating. Theories vary in the extent to which they have been conceptually developed and empirically tested; however, “testability” is an important feature of a theory. As Stephen Turner has noted in his chapter on “Theory Development,” social science theories are better understood as models that work in a limited range of settings, rather than. Development,” social science theories are better understood as models that work in a limited range of settings, rather than laws of science which hold and apply universally. A theory is a set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions.
In science, a theory is not merely a guess. A theory is a fact-based framework for describing a phenomenon. Social Psychology Theories The breadth and range of contemporary social psychology theories reflects the diverse intellectual origins of the various perspectives and approaches.
Early discussions of social psychology focused on these distinctive intellectual origins by highlighting the differences between psychological and sociological social.
Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury.
Theories vary in the extent to which they have been conceptually developed and empirically tested; however, “testability” is an important feature of a theory. As Stephen Turner has noted in his chapter on “Theory Development,” social science theories are better understood as models that work in a limited range of settings, rather than.
Science, Tech, Math › Social Sciences Major Sociological Theories and social behavior has emerged thanks to various sociology theories. Sociology students typically spend a great deal of time studying these different theories.
Some theories have fallen out of favor, while others remain widely accepted, but all have contributed.