Gender portrayal in popular fiction[ edit ] Female and male characters in film, according to four studies In her essay A Room of One's OwnVirginia Woolf observed about the literature of her time what the Bechdel test would later highlight in more recent fiction: And I tried to remember any case in the course of my reading where two women are represented as friends. They are now and then mothers and daughters.
Terminology[ edit ] In law, an heir is a person who is entitled to receive a share of the deceased 's the person who died property, subject to the rules of inheritance in the jurisdiction of which the deceased was a citizen or where the deceased decedent died or owned property at the time of death.
The inheritance may be either under the terms of a will or by intestate laws if the deceased had no will. However, the will must comply with the laws of the jurisdiction at the time it was created or it will be declared invalid for example, some states do not recognize holographic wills as valid, or only in specific circumstances and the intestate laws then apply.
A person does not become an heir before the death of the deceased, since the exact identity of the persons entitled to inherit is determined only then.
Members of ruling noble or royal houses who are expected to become heirs are called heirs apparent if first in line and incapable of being displaced from inheriting by another claim; otherwise, they are heirs presumptive.
There is a further concept of joint inheritance, pending renunciation by all but one, which is called coparceny. In modern law, the terms inheritance and heir refer exclusively to succession to property by descent from a deceased dying intestate.
Takers in property succeeded to under a will are termed generally beneficiariesand specifically devisees for real propertybequestees for personal propertyor legatees. Except in some jurisdictions where a person cannot be legally disinherited such as the United States state of Louisianawhich allows disinheritance only under specifically enumerated circumstancesa person who would be an heir under intestate laws may be disinherited completely under the terms of a will an example is that of the will of comedian Jerry Lewis ; his will specifically disinherited his six children by his first wife, and their descendants, leaving his entire estate to his second wife.
Historical inheritance systems Detailed anthropological and sociological studies have been made about customs of patrilineal inheritance, where only male children can inherit. Some cultures also employ matrilineal succession, where property can only pass along the female line, most commonly going to the sister's sons of the decedent; but also, in some societies, from the mother to her daughters.
Jewish laws[ edit ] The inheritance is patrilineal. The father —that is, the owner of the land— bequeaths only to his male descendants, so the Promised Land passes from one Jewish father to his sons.
If there were no living sons and no descendants of any previously living sons, daughters inherit. The order of inheritance is set out in Numbers Later, in Numbers 36some of the heads of the families of the tribe of Manasseh come to Moses and point out that, if a daughter inherits and then marries a man not from her paternal tribe, her land will pass from her birth-tribe's inheritance into her marriage-tribe's.
So a further rule is laid down: The daughters of Zelophehad marry the sons' of their father's brothers. There is no indication that this was not their choice. The tractate Baba Bathrawritten during late Antiquity in Babylon, deals extensively with issues of property ownership and inheritance according to Jewish Law.
The first, often abbreviated to Mishneh Torahwas written by Maimonides and was very important in Jewish tradition. All these sources agree that the firstborn son is entitled to a double portion of his father's estate: This means that, for example, if a father left five sons, the firstborn receives a third of the estate and each of the other four receives a sixth.
If he left nine sons, the firstborn receives a fifth and each of the other eight receive a tenth. Philo of Alexandria  and Josephus  also comment on the Jewish laws of inheritance, praising them above other law codes of their time.
They also agreed that the firstborn son must receive a double portion of his father's estate. Christian laws[ edit ] The New Testament does not specifically mention anything about inheritance rights: The topic is generally not discussed among doctrinal statements of various denominations or sects, leaving that to be a matter of secular concern.
Islamic inheritance jurisprudence The Quran introduced a number of different rights and restrictions on matters of inheritance, including general improvements to the treatment of women and family life compared to the pre-Islamic societies that existed in the Arabian Peninsula at the time.
However, the inheritance rights of women remained inferior to those of men because in Islam someone always has a responsibility of looking after a woman's expenses. According to the Quran, for example, a son is entitled to twice as much inheritance as a daughter.
This development was in contrast to pre-Islamic societies where rules of inheritance varied considerably. In their will, a Muslim can only give out a maximum of one third of their property.
The Quran contains only three verses that give specific details of inheritance and shares, in addition to few other verses dealing with testamentary. Nowadays, inheritance is considered an integral part of Sharia law and its application for Muslims is mandatory, though many peoples see Historical inheritance systemsdespite being Muslim, have other inheritance customs.
Inequality[ edit ] The distribution of the inherited wealth has varied greatly among different cultures and legal traditions. In nations using civil lawfor example, the right of children to inherit wealth from parents in pre-defined ratios is enshrined in law,  as far back as the Code of Hammurabi ca.
In cases of unequal inheritance, the majority might receive little while only a small number inherit a larger amount, with the lesser amount given to the daughter in the family.
This is especially seen in old world cultures, but continues in many families to this day. In terms of inheritance inequality, some economists and sociologists focus on the inter generational transmission of income or wealth which is said to have a direct impact on one's mobility or immobility and class position in society.
Nations differ on the political structure and policy options that govern the transfer of wealth.
Historically, the baby boomers were the largest influx of children conceived after WW2. For this reason, Thomas Shapiro suggests that this generation "is in the midst of benefiting from the greatest inheritance of wealth in history.
Other research has shown that many inheritances, large or small, are rapidly squandered. Inheritance is an integral component of family, economic, and legal institutions, and a basic mechanism of class stratification.Once students hit Algebra, math gets a lot more tricky.
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A growing body of empirical evidence suggests that inequality—income or gender related—can impede economic growth. Using dynamic panel regressions and new time series data, this paper finds that both income and gender inequalities, including from legal gender-based restrictions, are jointly negatively associated with per capita GDP growth.
But because we are multiplying by a negative number, the inequalities will change direction read Solving Inequalities to see why. 2 > t 2 > 1 To be neat, the smaller number should be on the left, and the larger on the right. Nov 30, · The Office of Public Affairs (OPA) is the single point of contact for all inquiries about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
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